What’s new in aiohttp 1.1¶
YARL and URL encoding¶
Since aiohttp 1.1 the library uses yarl for URL processing.
yarl.URL gives handy methods for URL operations etc.
Client API still accepts
str everywhere url is used,
session.get('http://example.com') works as well as
URL using is the recommended way, already existed properties for retrieving URL parts are deprecated and will be eventually removed.
Reverse URL processing for router has been changed.
The main API is
which returns a
yarl.URL instance for named resource. It
does not support query args but adding args is trivial:
The method returns a relative URL, absolute URL may be constructed by
YARL encodes all non-ASCII symbols on
On filling route table it’s possible to use both non-ASCII and percent encoded paths:
are the same. Internally
'/путь' is converted into
Route matching also accepts both URL forms: raw and encoded by converting the route pattern to canonical (encoded) form on route registration.
Sub applications are designed for solving the problem of the big monolithic code base. Let’s assume we have a project with own business logic and tools like administration panel and debug toolbar.
Administration panel is a separate application by its own nature but all
toolbar URLs are served by prefix like
Thus we’ll create a totally separate application named
connect it to main app with prefix:
admin = web.Application() # setup admin routes, signals and middlewares app.add_subapp('/admin/', admin)
Middlewares and signals from
admin are chained.
It means that if URL is
'/admin/something' middlewares from
app are applied first and
admin.middlewares are the next in
the call chain.
The same is going for
on_response_prepare signal – the
signal is delivered to both top level
processing URL is routed to
Third level sub-applications can be nested into second level ones – there are no limitation for nesting level.
Url reversing for sub-applications should generate urls with proper prefix.
But for getting URL sub-application’s router should be used:
admin = web.Application() admin.add_get('/resource', handler, name='name') app.add_subapp('/admin/', admin) url = admin.router['name'].url_for()
url from example will have a value
Application can be used either as main app (
app.make_handler()) or as
sub-application – not both cases at the same time.
After connecting application by
.add_subapp() call or starting
serving web-server as toplevel application the application is
It means that registering new routes, signals and middlewares is
forbidden. Changing state (
app['name'] = 'value') of frozen application is
deprecated and will be eventually removed.