DNS resolver for asyncio.


The library for writing single-threaded concurrent code using coroutines, multiplexing I/O access over sockets and other resources, running network clients and servers, and other related primitives.

Reference implementation of PEP 3156


Any object that can be called. Use callable() to check that.


cChardet is high speed universal character encoding detector - binding to charsetdetect.


Note that the cchardet project is known not to support Python 3.10 or higher. See #6819 and GitHub: PyYoshi/cChardet/issues/77 for more details.


The Real First Universal Charset Detector. Open, modern and actively maintained alternative to Chardet.


Gunicorn ‘Green Unicorn’ is a Python WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX.


An Internationalized Domain Name in Applications (IDNA) is an industry standard for encoding Internet Domain Names that contain in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French. These writing systems are encoded by computers in multi-byte Unicode. Internationalized domain names are stored in the Domain Name System as ASCII strings using Punycode transcription.


A technique for communicating between HTTP client and server when connection is not closed after sending response but kept open for sending next request through the same socket.

It makes communication faster by getting rid of connection establishment for every request.


Nginx [engine x] is an HTTP and reverse proxy server, a mail proxy server, and a generic TCP/UDP proxy server.


A mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) if URL parts don’t fit in safe characters space.


Currently the most popular synchronous library to make HTTP requests in Python.


Applying percent-encoding to non-safe symbols and decode percent encoded safe symbols back.

According to RFC 3986 allowed path symbols are:

allowed       = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims
                / ":" / "@" / "/"

pct-encoded   = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG

unreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"

sub-delims    = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
                / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="

A concept reflects the HTTP path, every resource corresponds to URI.

May have a unique name.

Contains route's for different HTTP methods.


A part of resource, resource’s path coupled with HTTP method.


An endpoint that returns HTTP response.


A protocol providing full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. The WebSocket protocol was standardized by the IETF as RFC 6455


A library for operating with URL objects.